You must apply for a visa before moving to Germany. To do so contact your nearest German consulate in India. Make it in Germany offers comprehensive information for professionals, including a downloadable pdf.
The visa will allow you to travel to most EU member states, i.e. those which are members of the Schengen agreement. There are ten different types of visa. Depending on the type of visa you need, you will be required to have a valid passport (minimum of 6 months), passport photos, proof of accommodation in Germany, health insurance, return ticket, bank statement for the last 3 months, employment contract/enrolment at university, the original birth certificate and both parent´s consent for minors, and more. All these will accompany the application form.
If you are staying for more than 90 days and have a job contract, you´ll need a German resident permit. Applications need to be made within this time at the "Auslandsbehörde" (foreigners authority). A temporary one will cover you for a shorter period of time, otherwise you´ll need a settlement permit (Ger. "Niederlassungserlaubnis"). This is an indefinite visa which allows you and your family to live and work in Germany.